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The Development of a Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU and the role of its 
High Representative

Javier Solana, Secretary-General of the Council of the 
European Union, about his new function and a short outlook about 
his vision of a Common European Foreign and Security Policy. 



Javier Solana
High Representative for the Common Foreign 
and Security Policy

Europe's diplomat-in-chief, 
Javier Solana
Background Information

History:
The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) was established by the Maastricht Treaty and came into force on 1 November 1999. The provisions of the CFSP were revised by the Amsterdam Treaty which was signed on 2 October 1997 and came into force on 1 May 1999.
Articles 11 to 28 of the Treaty of the European Union are now devoted especially to the CFSP.
For almost forty years of European construction the very expression "common foreign policy" remained a taboo. The European Union can now make its voice heard on the international stage and express its position on armed conflicts, human rights and any other subject.

Implementation:
The CFSP is not implemented in the same way as community policy such as agricultural or research policy. In view of the sensitive nature of questions affecting international relations, the Treaty sets very great store by Member States and the bodies of the European Union in which they participate directly. The powers of the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Court of Justice were limited for that very reason.
Furthermore, the CFSP is not equipped with legal instruments such as directives and regulations that exist for community policies. Instead, it uses specific instruments carried out by special agents.

Agents:
- The European Council
It brings together the Heads of State or Government of the 15 and the President of the European Commission. Members of the European Council are accompanied by Ministers for Foreign Affairs and by the Commissioner for External Relations (currently Mr. Chris Patten). Hosted by the Member State holding the Presidency of the Council it occupies a position of the highest rank in the common foreign and security policy in that it determines the policy's principles and general guidelines. The Amsterdam Treaty now stipulates that the European Council shall decide on the common strategies to be implemented by the Union. The Council can adopt decisions, actions or common positions by a qualified majority.

- The Council of the European Union
The Council of the European Union is composed of ministerial representatives of each Member State. CFSP matters are dealt with by Foreign Affairs Ministers in the General Affairs Council. The Council has to take the necessary decisions concerning the formulation and implementation of the CFSP on the basis of general guidelines laid down by the European Council. The Council is responsible for ensuring that the Unions action is unified, consistent and effective.
The proceedings of the General Affairs Council are prepared by the Permanent Representatives Committee. The Representatives (Ambassadors) act in this area in the same way as for the other Community policies. The Political Committee monitors the international situation, contributes to the formulation of policies by giving the Council opinions, either at the latter's request or on its own initiative, and also overseas the implementation of the policies that are agreed.

Functions

Mr. Javier Solana is Secretary-General of the Council of the European Union and High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) for a five year term with effect from 18 October 1999.

In addition to his role as head of the General Secretariat of the Council, Mr. Solana, as High Representative for the CFSP, assists the Council by contributing to the formulation, development and implementation of political decisions and, where necessary, by conducting political talks with third countries on the Council's behalf.

Since 25 November 1999, Mr. Solana has also been Secretary-General of the Western European Union.

Javier Solana Madariaga

- Born in Madrid on 14 July 1942.
- Married to Concepcion Gimenez - 2 children.
- Doctorate in physics - Fulbright scholar at several American universities.
- Professor of solid-state physics at Madrid Complutense University - author of over thirty publications 
in the field.
- Member of the Spanish Chapter of the Club of Rome
- Joined the Spanish Socialist Party in 1964.
- Member of Spanish Parliament since 1977.
- Spanish Cabinet Minister from 1982 to 1995 without interruption.
- December 1982 - July 1988: Minister for Culture simultaneously acted as Government Spokesman 
from July 1985 - July 1988.
- July 1988 - July 1992: minister for Education and Science.
- July 1992 - December 1995: Minister for Foreign Affairs.
- December 1995 - October 1995: Secretary-General of NATO.
- Since 18 October 1999: Secretary General of the Council of the European Union and High 
Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy.
Since 25 November 1999: Secretary General of WEO.

The European Union is today a positive factor for peace not just in the wider Europe but around the world. It offers a model for regional integration as a guarantee for peace. It is a potent symbol of reconciliation between former enemies. It stands for democratic values.
That is why Europe should play a more active role in ensuring that the world is more secure and stable. In the past, Europe was only presented on the global scene as an economic power. With the Treaties of Maastricht (1992) and Amsterdam (1997) the EU started to develop a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The Union committed itself to defend its common values and shared interests to strengthen the security of the Union, to preserve peace and to strengthen international security in accordance with the UN Charter, to promote international cooperation and, last but not least, to develop and to strengthen democracy and the rule of law as well as the respect of human rights.
It is true that pooling sovereignty in the area of foreign policy is still a sensitive issue for some but there is a new and widespread recognition that the problems of today's world can only be tackled by working together. Today, the EU has a political and legal framework to adopt common strategies and decide on common actions in foreign and security policy. Basic decisions still require unanimity of Member States whereas certain implementing decisions can be taken by a qualified majority.
A new actor

The Amsterdam Treaty created a new actor in order to support the Council of the EU where all Member Sates are represented and where decisions on CFSP are prepared and implemented.
The role of the Secretary-General of the Council of the EU was extended to include the post of High Representative of CFSP. This is the position which I have been holding now since 15 October 1999. The Presidency of the Union rotates among Member States every six months. My task as High Representative is to ensure continuity and coherence of CFSP and to assist the Presidency and the Council to that effect. The High Representative plays an important role in the external representation of the Union. He can be mandated to conduct the political dialogue with third parties. I work closely with the Presidency and with other institutions in particular the Commission. But I also depend on close cooperation with all Member States. An effective CFSP has to have the broad support of all 15 Member States by definition. But each one can make specific contributions according to its particular experience or expertise. 

The decisive Balkans

The creation of the post of High Representative is itself evidence of the commitment throughout the Union to developing a CFSP. There is now a remarkable degree of consensus in support of this objective. I find it encouraging that much of the momentum comes initially not from politicians but from the man or woman on the street. Ordinary people are not so interested in processes and treaties. They want Europe to be able to deliver on tackling such issues as terrorism and drug-trafficking. They want us to be able to support democratic government, to defend human rights and the rule of law. To make the world more secure and more stable.
If we want to find regions where stability and peace are still far from guaranteed we do not have to look far. The Western Balkans lie on the very doorstep of the European Union. The Union has a unique role to play in bringing lasting peace and prosperity to the region. We have the experience of cooperation and integration. The recipe has worked for us. It should also work for the Western Balkans. I think it is correct to say that the future credibility of our CFSP depends largely on success in the Balkans. This is why I feel very much committed to ensuring that we have a coherent and effective policy in the Balkans to contribute to the coherence of EU policies.

Major challenges

The core of our policy has to remain the full integration of all countries of the region into the political and economic mainstream of Europe. This is exactly what we confirmed at the Lisbon European Council meeting at the end of March. It means holding out the prospect in the long-term of membership of the European Union. Apart from those countries which are already candidates most of the other countries benefit from the network of Stabilisation and Association Agreements. These agreements must have sufficient flexibility to respond to the specific and changing needs of each country in the region. We must place sufficient emphasis on the need for conditionality but at the same time we need to be ready to offer generous terms for example in the field of trade, where this is going to have a direct impact on economic development and stability. This has not always been the case so far. One of the key results of the Helsinki European Council in December 1999 was to set an objective to provide the Union with sufficient military and non-military capabilities to intervene in humanitarian and rescue tasks, peacekeeping and crisis management. The Union- both through the Commission (ECHO, the European Community Humanitarian Office) and all Member States - has long been the world's largest provider of humanitarian aid. But it also has to develop new capabilities to be able to respond more effectively.

A military union?

At Helsinki, European leaders committed themselves to being able, by 2003, to put into the field a rapid reaction force of up to 60.000 troops to undertake the full range of humanitarian and peacekeeping tasks. They are supposed to be deployed within 60 days and sustained for at least a year. Since then, we have established new permanent political and military bodies to ensure adequate political accountability as well as rapid and effective decision-making procedures for managing day-to-day operations. Steps have also been taken to ensure that appropriate measures are in place for the consultation and cooperation with non-EU European allies and with NATO. All Member States have agreed that the Union is not in the business of creating a European army. That is quite clear. A ESDP is not about collective defence. The Union has no ambition to take over or duplicate the work of NATO. 
Establishing a military capability is an important element of a properly functioning CFSP. But if it is to deal with the types of humanitarian crises for which it is intended it will also have to be accompanied by the development of adequate civilian capabilities. Many are already available and are being used in response to crises. The Union and Member States have considerable experience in the fields of civilian policing, humanitarian assistance, electoral and human rights monitoring. If we are serious about creating military capabilities as well as enhancing existing civilian capabilities, the EU will be able to play a unique role across the full range of humanitarian and peacekeeping tasks. 

This will require political will and financial commitment. It is in our own interests to work for greater peace, stability and security not only in Europe but also beyond our own frontiers. The results will be more reliable partners, more secure investments, more stable regions and fewer crises in the future.

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